2 symptoms of polio
2.1 Symptoms of miscarriage poliomyelitis
2.2 Non-paralytic poliomyelitis
2.3 Symptoms of paralytic poliomyelitis
3 symptoms of post-polio syndrome
4 cases that require a doctor’s review
5 tips for living with polio
Polio is known medically as poliomyelitis, and it is an infectious disease.
It occurs due to the entry of a virus called poliovirus to the body through the mouth or the respiratory system,
The virus multiplies and its numbers increase in the throat and intestine,
In fact, the virus can move inside the body through the blood,
The virus can also enter parts of the central nervous system. Spinal cord and brain,
While the virus is excreted from the person’s body through stool,
Mostly, the poliovirus is transmitted between individuals through direct contact with an infected person.
The virus can get from the stool of an infected person to the mouth of a healthy person,
In some cases, the virus can be transmitted through food and water contaminated with the virus,
It is worth noting that most cases of poliovirus infection are considered mild and cause simple symptoms that resemble the symptoms associated with influenza,
However, there are some severe cases of it;
Where the virus attacks nerve cells that help the muscles to do their job, which leads to severe muscle paralysis,
In general, the poliovirus affects mostly those under the age of 5 years.
But it can affect people at any age,
It should be noted that the best and most successful way to prevent disease is vaccination against the poliovirus,
* There are two types of vaccines currently used in different countries of the world;
The first type is the oral polio vaccine (OPV).
Which contains live attenuated or attenuated virus,
The second type of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that is given by injection,
In fact, the whole world is close to eliminating this virus as a result of improving and developing health conditions and paying attention to giving the necessary vaccinations.
Symptoms of polio
Cases infected with the poliovirus can be divided into four categories, which differ according to the severity of the symptoms appearing on the patient,
In fact, most cases do not show any symptoms at all, and this category is called Inapparent infection.
The percentage of this group is estimated at approximately 72%, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics.
As for the cases that show symptoms, they belong to one of the remaining groups, which are:
- Abortive poliomyelitis,
- Nonparalytic poliomyelitis
- Paralytic poliomyelitis
It should be noted that the incubation period for poliovirus in general ranges from 3 to 35 days,
In cases with paralysis, the incubation period ranges between 7 and 14 days.
First: Symptoms of Abortive Poliomyelitis
Abortive poliomyelitis is a mild condition that does not last for long.
As for the accompanying symptoms, they may differ slightly from one child to another.
But in general, it may include some common symptoms, the most important of which are:
- High body temperature
- Decreased appetite for food than normal
- Suffering from stomach disorders such as nausea and vomiting
- Sore throat
- Feeling of general discomfort and malaise in the body
- Tummy ache.
Second: Symptoms of non-paralytic poliomyelitis
The symptoms associated with non-paralytic poliomyelitis are more severe than the symptoms associated with the previous type,
The most prominent of them are
- Severe vomiting
The alternation of fatigue and illness with the apparent improvement of the child, then the state of health regression again
Feeling of pain in the muscles of the neck, trunk, arms and legs
Stiffness in the area between the neck and the spine
It should be noted that these symptoms usually disappear on their own within ten days and do not cause paralysis for the patient.
Third: the symptoms of paralytic poliomyelitis
The poliovirus can sometimes cause severe and dangerous symptoms if it is in the paralytic poliomyelitis category.
This is as a result of the virus reaching the motor neurons and multiplying inside them, and then destroying them,
The virus targets these nerve cells located in
The part of the cerebral cortex responsible for movement
It usually causes symptoms similar to non-paralytic poliomyelitis in the beginning, but later it develops into more severe symptoms, the most important of which are:
- Loss of muscle reflexes
- Feeling of severe muscle pain and cramps
- Laxity and softness of the limbs
Often one side of the body is affected more than the other, and in fact paralytic poliomyelitis can be divided into three types, namely:
1- spinal polio:
In it, the virus attacks the motor neurons in the spinal cord,
It paralyzes the upper and lower extremities, and causes breathing problems.
2- bulbar polio:
In it, the virus attacks the nerve cells responsible for the process of vision, taste, swallowing, and breathing.
3- Spinal bulbar polio:
In this type, the symptoms of bulbar and spinal polio are combined.
Paralysis or the inability to move some parts of the body is the most severe and most dangerous symptom associated with the poliovirus,
In fact, the majority of individuals with paralysis will eventually regain some of their physical strength.
And some of them will return to normal
This is because the degree of paralysis depends on the number of neurons affected in the viral attack,
If the nerve cells are completely destroyed and destroyed, the paralysis is permanent.
While there is hope for recovery from paralysis only if nerve cells are damaged, where they can be repaired,
It should be noted that the incidence of paralysis and weakness of the upper or lower extremities, or both, is estimated to occur for one case out of approximately 200 cases of poliovirus infection,
According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Control.
Symptoms of post-polio syndrome
Post-polio syndrome is defined as a group of signs and symptoms that impede and impair the ability to perform normal activities.
They appear on and affect the patient after several years of infection with the polio virus,
In fact, it is not necessary that post-polio syndrome occurs in all cases that have been infected with the polio virus in the past,
However, the risk of developing post-polio syndrome is increased in individuals who have had a severe case of acute paralytic poliomyelitis.
And people who contracted the virus at an old age,
And those who had the virus that left them with permanent weakness and disorder, in addition to some physical disability and disability,
It should be noted that post-polio syndrome is not contagious, unlike poliovirus,
Symptoms of the post-polio syndrome appear very slowly, and include the following:
- Feeling weak in new muscles as a result of damage from the virus,
- Or overuse of muscles, or because of underuse.
- Feeling tired and tired from normal activities that did not cause fatigue in the past,
- Muscle and joint pain as a result of the great effort that these tissues work with to compensate for the weakness in some muscles of the body.
- Have trouble swallowing, sleep and tolerate low temperatures.
- Feeling sleepy and difficult to think clearly.
Cases that need to see a doctor
A person needs to see a doctor receive the necessary medical care when any signs of muscle weakness or paralysis appear,
This is especially true when the body temperature rises.
Or when suffering from a severe headache associated with a stiff neck and back,
Although the poliovirus may not be the cause of these symptoms, it may be the result of infection with another virus,
This, in turn, calls for seeing a doctor as well.
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