1 stage of childhood
2 Childhood stages and their characteristics
2.2 Middle childhood
2.3 Late childhood
The childhood stage is the main pillar in building an individual’s personality,
As it has great importance in achieving success, or failure;
That is why it was necessary to shed light on this period of an individual’s life,
And a statement of its most important stages, and the characteristics of each stage.
Childhood received several definitions, and among these definitions are the following:
1- The Oxford Dictionary defines childhood as:
“The time when an individual is a child and lives a happy childhood”,
Where he defined the child as: “A newborn person, whether male or female.”
2- The Longman Dictionary defines childhood as:
“The time that a person goes through when they are a child,”
Where he defined the child as: “A person who is young from the time of his birth until he reaches the age of fourteen or fifteen, and he is a son or daughter at any age.”
3- Sociologists believe that childhood is:
“The early period of human life in which a person totally depends on his parents for preserving his life;
In it, he learns and exercises for the next period, which is not important in and of itself.
Rather, it is a bridge across which the child crosses until the physiological, mental, psychological, social, moral and spiritual maturity, during which the human life as a social being is shaped.
Among the definitions that relate to all childhood, we can see that the draft United Nations Convention, in its first article, indicated that childhood is:
“A stage in which a person does not bear the responsibilities of life, relying on parents and kin to satisfy his organic needs,
And the school is in the care of life, extending from birth until near the end of the second decade of life,
It is the first stage in the formation and growth of the personality.
It is a stage of control, control, and educational guidance. “
As for the child, it was defined as: “Every human being under the age of eighteen unless he attained the age of majority prior to that in accordance with the law applicable to him.”
Childhood stages and their characteristics
Early childhood stage
In the previous article, we talked about some characteristics of early childhood and mentioned the following:
- First: the characteristics of physical and motor development
- Second: Characteristics of psychological development
- Third: the characteristics of mental development
Today we will continue talking about this stage and we will talk about
Characteristics of emotional and social development as well as characteristics of linguistic development
Then we will continue talking about the other stages of the growth stages
Where it is distinguished by a group of things, the most prominent of which are:
1- Excessive emotions and their speed in the child, although they do not last for a long time; This is a result of internal factors,
Such as the child’s influence on those around him, or external factors, such as the manner in which the parents deal with him.
2- Feelings of fear that may hinder the child’s self-reliance or independence, if they are not normal,
But if it is natural, such as fear of animals, then it is a healthy thing for him.
3- The emergence of feelings of jealousy that haunts the child upon the arrival of a new baby, and feelings of anger, whether verbally or through aggression, and the child’s sleep is unstable at this stage.
Characteristics of social development:
Where this type of growth is characterized by the following:
The expansion of the child’s social relations, whether with his family or with his companions.
The child learns many concepts, and his involvement in many activities, and experiences that help him to transform into a social being.
The child acquires behaviors, values, attitudes, and morals. Because of the social methods of upbringing, he is exposed to, such as imitation, reward, punishment, and others.
A characteristic of cooperation appears in the child; Where he is aware of the presence of others.
Some children are characterized by leadership and leadership, while others like isolation. This is because the child’s personality will have its features and characteristics formed at the approaching date of entering school.
The child is closely related to his mother. They are the source of satisfying his needs, but his dependence on them gradually decreases as he ages, and he is able to increase his independence if he is able to walk and move.
The child appears to be stubborn and disobedient, and also shows individual differences between females and males; We find that the females become stubborn, while the males become more destructive, and it is worth noting that my nervousness and anger appear at this stage.
The child develops the competitiveness feature, which reaches its climax at the age of five.
The child prefers during this stage of independence in some aspects, such as eating and wearing clothes, but he remains highly dependent on others, bearing in mind that due to the different personal characteristics, this independence is not achieved for all children.
Characteristics of language development:
As this type of development helps the child express himself and interact with those around him,
In addition to establishing social relationships, and facilitating his cognitive and mental development; Since speech is evidence of mental development,
It is worth noting that the child’s language development is affected by several factors, including:
Availability of media, his interactions with adults, and his interaction with his surrounding environment; This is because the females are considered to be better at talking and faster.
This stage extends from the age of six to the age of nine, and is characterized by the following characteristics:
1- mental development:
Where the child is able to perceive things in a comprehensive manner, as it depends on realistic thinking,
And abandoning the imagination, in addition to that, it depends on visual images in its thinking, and tends to comprehend and memorize.
2- physical growth:
Where the child’s body grows in terms of weight, height, and tends to skills that require reliance on muscles and is characterized by activity, vitality.
3- Social Development:
Where it begins to be distinctly independent of parents, and becomes more concerned with social work, cooperation,
His relationships grow in his environment and his school, knowing that he becomes interested in looking for same-sex friends.
4- Sensory development:
Where he develops a strong sense of touch, which helps him to know the world around him.
5- Emotional Growth:
Where the child at this stage is characterized by moderation in his moods, he becomes more in control of himself, and his emotions, and self-confidence appears in him significantly.
This stage extends from the age of nine to the age of twelve, and is characterized by the following characteristics:
1- Sensory-motor development:
Where the child is distinguished at this stage by his tendency to motor activity, and he spends his time mostly outside the home; To practice activities, such as cycling,
Knowing that his sensory maturity reaches its fullest upon reaching the age of nine,
Then he becomes more in control of his delicate muscles; Because of his maturity of mental skills.
2- physical growth:
Where the child’s body grows at this stage, and his personality grows, so the physical proportions become similar to the characteristics of adults,
For example, the limbs become long, the growth in muscles increases and a relative increase occurs in each of:
A- Weight by (10%) per year
B – Height of (5%) per year
In addition to the increased ability to fight diseases, it is worth noting that not all children enjoy the same way, or the same rates, in their development.
3- Linguistic development:
As he grows his linguistic ability and increases in quantitative and qualitative terms at the age of nine, he learns to read and write, and his motor abilities develop at the age of ten,
In addition, he becomes inclined to write in an organized manner,
It is worth noting that the environment in which the family lives, the educational conditions present in the school, and the home alike affect the child’s vocabulary development.
4- mental development:
As the child develops a desire to discover secrets related to the environment that surrounds him,
He becomes more aware of the outside world.
He also becomes interested in explaining relationships at the age of ten, which is characterized by being the finest intellectually what is characteristic of the eighth and ninth stages of the description,
In addition, his thinking becomes functional and practical, leading to pure thinking at the end.
It is worth noting that the child develops the ability to abstract, and the thinking related to sensory things decreases significantly.
5- Emotional and Social Development:
It is the stage of stability and emotional stability, wherein this stage the child’s ability to control his emotions appears,
And self-control, so he learns how to give up the needs that may lead to the anger of his parents or others,
And his suggestive emotional tendencies grow, and he is interested in moral evaluation, conscience, and other matters,
It is worth noting that at this stage, his mixing with adults and friends increases while making sure to befriend people of the same sex,
He also spends a lot of time on teamwork.
6- Religious and moral development:
The child develops religious concepts at this stage, and the knowledge that God is the Creator of the entire universe,
He also realizes that heaven is a reward for those who do good, and Hell is a punishment for those who follow the path of evil
Knowing that it is the duty of the parents, and everyone involved in education, to follow the path of moderation in this religious education,
While being careful not to assign them what they cannot stand,
It is worth noting that the child acquires the moral values that he received in his school and his families, such as honesty, honesty, and others.
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