Epilepsy in children

Epilepsy in children


  1. Epilepsy
  2. Types of epilepsy in children
  3. Causes of epilepsy in children
  4. General epilepsy symptoms
  5. Other symptoms of epilepsy in children
  6. Partial epilepsy
  7. Epilepsy complications in children
  8. Treatment of epilepsy in children

Epilepsy in children

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects the brain and nervous system.

Where a person experiences seizure that begin in the brain, which contains millions of nerve cells that use electrical signals to control various body functions.

But when these functions malfunction, they cause epileptic seizures.

In this article, we will talk in detail about epilepsy in children, its causes, signs, and methods of treatment.

Types of epilepsy in children

1- partial epilepsy:

It is epilepsy resulting from an injury to one of the centers of the brain, and its symptoms differ according to the affected center.

2- General Epilepsy:

It is divided into two types:

A – major epilepsy:

In this type, the child loses consciousness completely, and falls, and thus this type is considered a danger because it causes the child to fall.

Like a fall from a high place, and it lasts for several minutes.

 B – Mild epilepsy:

The skin becomes pale, and the child partially loses consciousness, but he is still able to control his muscles.

Causes of epilepsy in children

  • Having an accident.
  • A deficiency of essential elements in the body such as oxygen, calcium, and glucose.
  • Congenital disability at birth.
  • Inflammation of brain tissue.
  • Take some toxic drugs.
  • Have strokes.
  • Exposure to a direct blow to the head.
  • Shake the children vigorously.
  • Meningitis infection.
  • Lack of oxygen during childbirth.
  • High fever in childhood.
  • Presence of a congenital anomaly in the brain.
  • Abnormal metabolism.

Epilepsy in children

General epilepsy symptoms

Epileptic seizures are divided into two main types,

  1. Generalized seizure
  2. Partial seizure

This division depends on the part of the brain that is affected, and the extent to which it is affected.

The general symptoms of epileptic seizures in children can be stated as follows:

  • Body stiffness.
  • Limbs twitching.
  • Gazing.
  • Breathing problems.
  • Unconsciousness.
  • Not responding to vocal stimuli for short periods.
  • Inability to control the process of passing out and urinating during a seizure.
  • The incidence of periods of rapid blinking of the eyes, and other staring.
  • Falling to the ground suddenly, especially when losing consciousness.

Epilepsy in children

Other symptoms of epilepsy in children

Epilepsy is divided into several subtypes.

Each differs in the symptoms they cause.

We mention the following symptoms of the most common types in children:

1- Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

Which affects children in their teens,

It is characterized by the occurrence of sudden, convulsive attacks in the early morning,

Especially in the hands and shoulders,

Often his seizures progress to generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

2- Absence seizure:

Absence seizure, also known as infantile absence.

As the child in this state continues staring for short periods in the absence of signs of awareness,

Which may recur about a hundred times or more during the day,

The child may continue his activity after the seizure without knowing that it is happening.

Sometimes this attack may be accompanied by some cramps in the hands.

3- Rolandic epilepsy

Which affects children between 4-10 years old,

It is most common in males, and its signs are nocturnal episodes of shaking in the face, Aphasia,

Some children also have generalized myoclonic tonic attacks.

4-Atonic seizures

Which usually lasts for less than 15 seconds, but sometimes extends to several minutes,

  • Symptoms and signs include:
  • Drooping eyelids.
  • Unconsciousness.
  • Shivering.
  • Sudden loss of ability to control muscle movement.
  • Falling on the ground suddenly and not being able to move.

5- Generalized tonic-clonic seizure.

Which is divided into five separate stages, which are:

  • Body and limb spasm,
  • Then straighten it out,
  • Shivering
  • Followed by muscle contraction and relaxation
  • Ultimately, the child appears to be asleep or may have problems with speech, vision, headaches, or fatigue.

Partial epilepsy

Partial epileptic seizures may be preceded by some warning signs of their occurrence.

For the child to feel very afraid,

In addition to the sensory changes that include changes in the sense of hearing, smell, and sight,

Partial epileptic seizures are caused by a defect in the electrical brain function in a specific part on one side of the brain

This epilepsy has two types, each of them has different symptoms, and we mention the following:

Simple partial epilepsy:

Its symptoms depend on the affected part of the brain.

If the part responsible for vision is affected, the child may have changes in vision.

The muscles are also often affected, and the child may experience sweating, nausea, or paleness of the skin, but he does not lose consciousness.

Complex partial epilepsy:

This often affects the area that controls emotion and memory.

Therefore, some symptoms may appear that include unusual behaviors,

As if the child starts running, screaming, biting lips, crying, or laughing, and sometimes he may lose consciousness.

Epilepsy complications in children

There are many complications that may occur as a result of epileptic seizures, and we mention the following:

Heart-related complications:

These include tachycardia, heart attack, high blood pressure, and an irregular heartbeat.

Pulmonary complications:

Such as apnea, aspiration pneumonia, and respiratory failure, hypoxia

Endocrine-related complications:

Such as increased prolactin and cortisol.

Cerebral complications:

Such as cerebral edema, nerve damage similar to hypoxia, and elevated intracranial pressure.

Metabolism-related complications:

These include hyperkalemia, high and then low blood sugar, venous stasis, and hypovolemia.

Other complications:

Such as leukocytosis (in English: Leukocytosis), renal insufficiency, vomiting, sweating, fever, rhabdomyolysis, and fractures.

Treatment of epilepsy in children

Here are ways to treat epilepsy in children:


Treating the child is the responsibility of the parents, and they must take seriously the child’s illness.

And take it to a pediatrician who specializes in the brain and nervous system,

Most people with epilepsy, a doctor prescribes antiepileptic drugs for them.

To control their seizures,

Also, most children who take antiepileptic drugs stop having epileptic seizures if the drug suits them.

But sometimes the child may have side effects from the medication, and here, these medications must be stopped and a doctor should be consulted for other methods of treatment.

The Ketogenic Diet:

This diet helps reduce the number or severity of epileptic seizures that afflict children.

It is considered as a kind of medical treatment,

It must be supervised by a specialized doctor or nutritionist to prescribe special meals for your child.


It involves removing or separating part of the brain to stop or reduce epileptic seizures in the child.

İmportant notice:

The content of the submitted articles, including all text, graphics, images, and other materials, is provided for educational purposes only.

The information provided is not a substitute for professional medical advice or professional diagnosis.

Moreover, the information on this website should not be taken as final medical advice in relation to any case or individual situation.

We strongly recommend that you always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health service provider with any questions you may have regarding any medical condition, your general health, or the health of your child.



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